Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Plume Geothermal-
Earth Battery • CPG-EB™
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Plume Geothermal-Earth Battery • CPG-EB™
Our technology permanently, safely, and profitably stores vast quantities of CO2 in the earth to harvest geothermal energy, store energy from electric grids and thermal energy from low-carbon above-ground sources, such as solar thermal farms and decarbonized fossil energy power plants. Our system is recharged when supply exceeds demand and discharged when demand exceeds supply. Our technology minimizes water usage associated with power generation, while generating water by removing it to assure safe underground pressures.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a major greenhouse gas that contributes to Earth’s global warming. Over the past two centuries, its concentration in the atmosphere has greatly increased, mainly because of human activities such as fossil fuel burning.
One possible option for reducing CO2 emissions is to store it underground. This technique is called Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS).
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a greenhouse gas that occurs naturally in the atmosphere. Human activities are increasing the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere thus contributing to Earth’s global warming. CO2 is emitted when fuel is burnt – be it in large power plants, in car engines, or in heating systems. It can also be emitted by some other industrial processes, for instance when resources are extracted and processed, or when forests are burnt.
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one of the techniques that could be used to reduce CO2 emissions from human activities. It could be applied to emissions from large power plants or industrial facilities.
The process involves three main steps:
• capturing CO2, at its source, by separating it from other gases produced by an industrial process
• transporting the captured CO2 to a suitable storage location (typically in compressed form)
• storing the CO2 away from the atmosphere for a long period of time, for instance in underground geological formations, in the deep ocean, or within certain mineral compounds.
Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS)
CO2 can be used as a value-added commodity. This can result in a portion of the CO2 being permanently stored – for example, in concrete that has been cured using CO2 or in plastic materials derived from biomass that uses CO2 as one of the ingredients. The CO2 can also be converted into biomass. This can be achieved, for example, through algae farming using CO2 as a feedstock. The harvested algae can then be processed into bio-fuels that take the place of non-biological carbon sources.
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)
CO2 is already widely used in the oil industry for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from mature oilfields. When CO2 is injected into an oilfield it can mix with the crude oil causing it to swell and thereby reducing its viscosity, helping to maintain or increase the pressure in the reservoir. The combination of these processes allows more of the crude oil to flow to the production wells. In other situations, the CO2 is not soluble in the oil. Here, injection of CO2 raises the pressure in the reservoir, helping to sweep the oil towards the production well. In EOR, the CO2 can therefore have a positive commercial value and can help support the deployment of CCUS and create a revenue stream for CCS projects, as the CO2 captured becomes an economic resource.
CO2 is stored in carefully selected geological rock formations that are typically located several kilometres below the earth's surface. As CO2 is pumped deep underground, it is compressed by the higher pressures and becomes essentially a liquid. There are a number of different types of geological trapping mechanisms (depending on the physical and chemical characteristics of the rocks and fluids) that can be utilised for CO2 storage.
At every point in the CCUS chain, from production to storage, industry has at its disposal a number of process technologies that are well understood and have excellent health and safety records. The commercial deployment of CCUS will involve the widespread adoption of these CCUS techniques, combined with robust monitoring techniques and government regulation.
Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS)
Mitigating climate change requires immense transformative measures to reduce the carbon intensity of energy, with their success largely hinging on economic viability and scalability. CO2 Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) has been considered and studied intensively for more than a decade. In oil fields, it has been deployed for decades; yet, the economic benefit of CO2 enhanced oil recovery is not sufficient to generate a strong enough business case for the capture of CO2. The key environmental factor that impedes deployment of industrial-scale CCUS is the overpressure created by storing vast quantities of CO2 underground. Water intensity of CO2 capture is another factor impeding CCUS deployment. Our approach addresses these economic and environmental barriers to reducing the carbon intensity of energy by using CO2 storage to (1) generate renewable energy, (2) store various forms of energy, and (3) maximize use of low-carbon renewable and nonrenewable energy resources, while reducing the water intensity of energy.
CPG-EB™ Storage Benefits
Geologic CO2 storage (GCS) in sedimentary basins is a promising approach that can reduce CO2 intensity of fossil energy use, but the high cost of capturing CO2 requires valuable uses for CO2 to justify those costs. Our approach of using GCS to generate geothermal energy and store energy is designed for locations where a permeable sedimentary formation is overlain by a caprock that is impermeable enough to constrain the vertical migration of buoyant, pressurized CO2. In our approach, the initial "charging" of the system requires permanently isolating large volumes of captured CO2 and thus creates a market for its disposal. Once charged, our system can take power from, and deliver power to, electricity grids in a way that mitigates issues with high penetration of variable wind and solar energy sources (e.g., reduce curtailments of wind power deliveries during periods of high winds and low loads). Our approach also constrains the potential migration of CO2 while the well field is being operated, and reduces the potential for CO2 leakage long after well-field operations have ceased.
Steam -VS- sCO2
Another advantage for using CO2 as a working fluid is the size of the turbine.
Currently the standard Steam turbines used are 20 meters large producing 300 MWe. For the same 300 MWe output a sCO2 turbine is as small as 1 meter in size.
A 20 to 1 ratio!